The Rune Converter I link to above transforms Roman alphabet, as used in modern English, into five systems of Germanic runic writing: Elder Futhark, Anglo-Saxon runes, Long Branch Younger Futhark, Short Twig Younger Futhark and staveless runes (note that it does not translate the words themselves, it only converts letters into runes).
Note that the present converter works with modern English only. Letters with Old Norse (or any other) diacritics will not be converted into rune
For nine days and nine nights, Odin hung from the world tree pierced by his own spear. He sacrificed himself onto himself – the highest of the Gods. He did this to learn the wisdom that would give him power in the nine worlds. Nine is a magical number in Norse Mythology, after all there are nine realms of existence in the Norse Cosmos. Odin learned 18 magical runes. (Source: Rúnatal, a section of the Hávamál)
So what are the Runes? They are a gift to mankind. These sacred letters originally were carved into stone. Each letter has a metaphorical meaning as well as divination abilities. I suggest doing much research to completely know the runes. Reading this page alone won’t help you learn everything. After all, Odin had to hang from a tree for nine days pierced by a spear. He never said learning everything there is to know about the runes would be easy.